Artificial Intelligence

AI ​Artificial Intelligence: The History (2021)

The seeds of modern AI were planted by classical philosophers who attempted to describe the process of human thinking as the mechanical manipulation of symbols. This work culminated in the invention of the programmable digital computer in the 1940s, the machine based on the abstract essence of mathematical reasoning.

Technology has been around for a long time, but it’s only now that we’re able to get our hands on amazing things like artificial intelligence. Thanks to early thinkers such as Aristotle and Euclid (believe me I didn’t know who they were either), the idea of machines doing human tasks became more tangible throughout the 1700s and beyond – not just in theory or logic, but with practical experimentation too!

The thought processes driving this interest originated when classical philosophers contemplated how humans could be artificially mechanized by intelligent non-human machinery.

 

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The Evolution of Artificial Intelligence

This idea was central to the literature and philosophy of ancient Greece, whose myths featured artificial beings endowed with intelligence by their artisans. The Roman philosopher Cicero in 44 BC told how Archytas had “constructed a wooden dove that would fly”, while Philo Judaeus (20 BCE – 50 CE) claimed that Alaric II created an automaton called the chess player. In 1572 Francesco de’ Zoccoli demonstrated his apparently fully mechanical robot at Rome for Charles IX’s amusement but it is unclear whether he or someone else dubbed “Archidorus” might have been its inventor.

In 1642 Bishop John Wilkins published An Essay towards a Real Character and Philosophical Language, which included a discussion on how natural language should be reformed to include mathematical notation. The Essay also outlined an idea of universal artificial intelligence where meaning was derived from the observation and analysis of patterns in nature via mathematics.

In 1738 French mathematician and engineer Jacques de Vaucanson showed his mechanical “digesting duck”, a life-size model that could eat grain, digest it then excrete it as meat or eggs while moving around; this is said to have been the world’s first robot but there are no clear records of its construction so De Vaucanson cannot be regarded as having any form of true Artificial Intelligence

The field of artificial intelligence research was founded in the mid-1950s when John McCarthy, a computer and cognitive scientist, coined the term “artificial intelligence.” Nearly a decade later Alan Turing proposed an AI test that measured machine ability to replicate human actions indistinguishable from them at Dartmouth College during their summer conference; today we are seeing more progress than ever before with icons being developed to aid understanding.

The history of artificial intelligence is riddled with the accomplishments and innovations that have changed our fundamental understanding. From the 1950s forward, many scientists, programmers, logicians, theorists aided in solidifying an understanding of AI as a whole. With each new decade came advancements and discoveries that helped propel it from being an unattainable fantasy to tangible reality – now available to current generations who are benefiting from its brilliance!

The seeds of modern AI were planted by classical philosophers who attempted to describe the process of human thinking as the mechanical manipulation of symbols. This work culminated in the invention of the programmable digital computer in the 1940s, the machine based on the abstract essence of mathematical reasoning. What had emerged was an entirely new intellectual discipline, with unknown potential and consequences that would only become clear over time.

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Despite its early success at Dartmouth College during their summer conference; today we are seeing more progress than ever before with icons being developed to aid understanding – ones that allow for simpler comprehension when developing advanced programming languages like neural networks and artificial intelligence methods such as genetic algorithms or Bayesian nets. Furthermore, advances in computing power have enabled us to store larger datasets and build better models in order to make predictions on these datasets.

The history of artificial intelligence began in the early 1900s with Alan Turing. He created the machine that could solve any possible mathematical problem, but it took so long to do anything- even simple calculations like 2+2 or 3×3=9–that no one really used his invention for practical purposes. In 1956 MIT researcher Herbert Simon coined the term “Artificial Intelligence” and wrote about solving problems using computers.

In the 1960s, AI researchers began working on machine learning and expert systems. In 1973 Marvin Minsky published Perceptrons: An Introduction to Computational Geometry which described neural networks that could learn from experience- they are still used today in pattern recognition tasks such as speech recognition or optical character recognition.

Newell and Simon’s General Problem Solver was created in 1956; it had a huge impact on computer science by trying to find solutions for any problem given enough time. It did this through an iterative process of breaking down problems into smaller pieces, finding the best way to solve each piece, then combining these solvable components back together like a jigsaw puzzle until the solution is found.

Karel Čapek, Czech playwright and author of Rossum’s Universal Robots (1921), was the first known person to use words such as “robot.” He explored ideas like factory-made artificial people who he called robots – a word that many have taken for their own research, art, discoveries ever since.

The sci-fi film Metropolis, directed by Fritz Lang, featured an artificial intelligence in a robotic girl that was indistinguishable from the human counterpart. The robot then attacks the town and wreaks havoc on futuristic Berlin for being one of the first to depict robots on screen as well as inspire other famous characters such as C-P30 in Star Wars.

In 1929 Japanese biologist and professor Makoto Nishimura created Gakutensoku, the first robot to be built in Japan. This translation of “learning from nature” implied that this artificial intelligence could derive knowledge from people or just as well by drawing conclusions through observation. Some features included moving its head and hands as well changing facial expressions which were often used for communication purposes back then.

In 1949, Edmund Berkeley wrote a book that explored the possibility of computers to think. He concluded that “a machine can think” if it is made up of hardware and wire instead of flesh and nerves like human brains are.

In 1949, Edmund Berkeley wrote a book that explored the possibility of computers to think. He concluded that “a machine can think” if it is made up of hardware and wire instead of flesh and nerves like human brains are.

Claude Shannon, “the father of information theory”, published the first article to discuss the development of a chess-playing computer program. The 1950s proved to be a time when many advances in artificial intelligence came into fruition with an upswing in research-based findings by various scientists among others.

Claude Shannon, “the father of information theory”, published the first article to discuss the development of a chess-playing computer program. The 1950s proved to be a time when many advances in artificial intelligence came into fruition with an upswing in research-based findings by various scientists among others.

Alan Turing was a pioneer in the field of artificial intelligence, and his work has impacted every aspect. His proposal for The Imitation Game became an integral part of how we measure machine intelligence today with tests like The Turing Test.

When Alan Turing came up with a proposal for The Imitation Game, he unknowingly set the groundwork for artificial intelligence by asking if machines can think and act like people. He proposed that an evaluation of machine-smartness should be conducted through this game: A person would pose questions to either another human or a computer program in order to determine which is more intelligent.

It wasn’t until his death when 50 years later at Cambridge University someone conceived what we now know as the “The Turing Test” – making it one of many important topics on Artificial Intelligence (AI) philosophy today because it determines whether you are conscious about your own ability or not – just like how AI studies these things too!

Arthur Samuel was the first computer scientist to develop a checkers-playing program, which independently learned how to play. In 1955 John McCarthy and his team created an artificial intelligence proposal for a workshop on “artificial intelligence.” When it took place in 1956, they attributed the birth of AI’s official name – machine learning – because Logic Theorist by Allen Newell (researcher), Herbert Simon (economist), and Cliff Shaw (programmer) is what coined that term.

Artificial intelligence was an emerging technology in the 1960s, and it skyrocketed throughout that decade. New programming languages were created, new robots/automatons emerged for research purposes, and films portraying artificially intelligent beings began to be released. As a result of all this attention on AI at the time – its popularity soared towards the end of the 20th century as well.

A robot named Unimate was the first to work on a General Motors assembly line in New Jersey. It transported die castings from one part of an assembly and welded them onto cars, something that is too dangerous for humans to do themselves. In 1961 James Slagle invented SAINT (Symbolic Automatic INTegrator), which focused primarily on symbolic integration in freshman calculus at universities across America

In 1964, Daniel Bobrow created a program called “STUDENT” that solved algebra word problems. It was an early step towards AI natural language processing and is often cited as one of the first milestones in AI development. In 1965, Joseph Weizenbaum developed ELIZA – an interactive computer program capable of functional conversation with humans through English (although it wasn’t Artificial Intelligence).

He had hoped to demonstrate how communication between artificially intelligent minds are superficial but discovered many people attributed anthropomorphic characteristics to ELIZA which made him question his work’s effect on human beings

In 1968, the sci-fi film 2001: A Space Odyssey was released. The movie features HAL (Heuristically programmed Algorithmic computer), a sentient machine who controls and interacts with spacecraft systems while conversing as if it were human until an error occurs that changes its interactions in negative ways.

The 1970s marked an era of rapid advancements in robotics, but one area where they lagged was artificial intelligence. However, WABOT-1 challenged this idea when it became the first anthropomorphic robot to be built by a Japanese university; with features such as moveable limbs and the ability to see.

In 1973, James Lighthill addressed the British Science Council about artificial intelligence research and stated that “in no part of the field have discoveries made so far produced [the] major impact” which was promised. This led to decreased support for AI from governments like Great Britain’s who invested significantly less in its advancement following these sobering statements.

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Although it is hard to say if this statement held true throughout history or not, there were some noteworthy developments such as George Lucas’ 1977 film Star Wars featuring C-3PO – a humanoid robot designed with 7 million forms of communication abilities; however, introducing R2D2 into the mix illustrates how much more advanced robots are becoming now than they were then despite being merely an assistant droid back then

In the 1970s, Stanford’s mechanical engineering students set out to create a remote-controlled mobile robot. With James L. Adams as their lead engineer, they created an autonomous cart that had all of its components on top so it could travel through tight spaces and not hit any chairs or obstacles in its way with ease. Next came Hans Moravec who added one final touch: he redesigned the Cart so that you would be able to use your joystick for full control of camera movement side-to-side across rooms filled with furniture!

The 1980s were an exciting and prosperous time for artificial intelligence. The rapid growth of AI includes advancements in WABOT-2, the robotic humanoid who can play music on a musical organ as well as communicate with humans through speech recognition technology.

When AI first emerged in the 1980s, it was met with apprehension and fear. Movies such as “Electric Dreams” depicted sentient computers that were capable of human-like reasoning but also created love triangles between man, woman, and computer.

In the 1980s, Mercedes-Benz and Ernst Dickmann collaborated on a driverless van with cameras. The result was an autonomous vehicle that could drive up to 55 mph without any obstacles or human drivers in its way. In 1988, Judea Pearl published Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems which helped pave the path for programming chatbots like Jabberwacky and Cle by Rollo Carpenter later that year.

Computer scientist Richard Wallace developed the chatbot A.L.I.C.E (Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer Entity), inspired by Weizenbaum’s ELIZA, but what differentiated it from its predecessor was that he added natural language sample data collection to his program in 1995 – a year before Y2K and one after many people were already expecting artificial intelligence to be on everyone’s lips for years or decades more as they reached into their pockets for change at the checkout counter of convenience stores like 7-11 which had been around since 1972!

In 1997, computer scientists Sepp Hochreiter and Jürgen Schmidhuber developed Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), a type of recurrent neural network architecture used for handwriting recognition. The next year is when Deep Blue became the first chess-playing machine to win against reigning world champion Garry Kasparov in an official tournament. Finally, Dave Hampton and Caleb Chung invented Furby as one of the earliest “pet” toys that can communicate with children through voice commands or by simply being touched!

Despite the fears of Y2K dying down, AI continued to trend upward and more artificially intelligent beings were created. Furthermore, creative media about artificial intelligence appeared in films as well throughout 2000-2010 such as A.I., Her, Ex Machina (2015), Chappie (2016) etcetera which is not surprising given that it was around this time period where our society’s technological advancements were at their height – by 2010 we had smartphones!

In 2000, the Y2K (year 2 thousand) problem was a class of computer bugs related to formatting and storing electronic calendar data. Given that all internet software had been created in the 1900s, some systems would have trouble adapting to new year formats like 2020 (and beyond). Previously these automated systems only needed to change two digits for years; now four were required – an obstacle for technology and those who used it.

The year 2004 was a big one for both the real and fictional exploration of Mars. It seemed like every other day another robot on planet Earth broke new ground, whether it be in science fiction or reality.

In 2004, NASA’s robotic exploration rovers Spirit and Opportunity are navigating Mars’ surface without human intervention.

It was a time for the advancement of robotics. The sci-fi film I, Robot directed by Alex Proyas is released this year in which it follows humanoid robots serving humankind while one individual who has had a personal tragedy with robots sets out to stop them altogether due to his fear that they will eventually turn against humans like what happened before when he lost someone close to him because of these automatons.

In 2006, three computer scientists came up with the term “machine reading.” They defined it as an unsupervised autonomous understanding of the text. In 2007, a team led by Google’s Fei-Fei Li assembled ImageNet: a database that had annotated images whose purpose was to aid in object recognition software research. The first driverless car was developed secretly at Google in 2009 and passed Nevada’s self-driving test just two years later!

The 2020s will be the decade of AI. From 2010 onward, artificial intelligence has become embedded in our day-to-day existence and we use smartphones that have voice assistants and computers with “intelligence” functions most people take for granted. The technology is no longer a pipe dream but instead an everyday reality that should propel it into household names like Microsoft or Apple by 2025. Ever since IBM’s Deep Blue computer beat chess champion, Garry Kasparov, at his own game in 1997, there’s been talk about how machines can learn from past experiences to make decisions without human input – this was just one step towards what would eventually be called Artificial Intelligence (AI).